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Title: Sustainable energy development strategies for Thailand
Authors: Wibulswas, Prida
Keywords: Sustainable development
Power resources Thailand
Issue Date: 1994
Type: Preprint
Series/Report no.: REP173 2003;c.1
REP173 2003;c.2
Abstract: During the last decade, the average annual energy demand increased by about 4.3%. Fossil fuels represented 81.4% of the total energy supply in 2001. Indigenous natural gas accounted for 33.7% of the supply. Biomass resources including fuel wood, paddy husk and bagasse whose utilization generates a very small amount of net greenhouse-gas emission account for about 16.6% of the total energy supply of the country. In 2001, 37.6 % of the total energy demand in Thailand was used in transportation. Diesel oil accounts for more than 50% of the petroleum products consumed in transportation. As a result, particulate matters from diesel engines are the most serious air pollutants in Bangkok. The 24-hr average value for small particulate matter is more than twice the limit in Thai air quality standard. Since 1990, transportation has contributed about one third of carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuel utilization. To further reduce the traffic congestion and air pollution in Bangkok, existing electric mass transit systems should be extended to the outskirts of Bangkok as soon as possible. Since Thailand has increasingly depended upon imported fossil fuels, greenhouse-gas emission in Thailand has increased so rapidly that its emission per capita before the year 2010 may exceed the world average emission in the base year 1990. Electricity generation has had the largest share of carbon dioxide emission. The present methods for the assessment of carbon dioxide and methane emissions from deforestation and agriculture grossly exaggerate the emissions in developing countries including Thailand. Energy conservation seems to be the most effective method to mitigate both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Energy conservation measures such as demand side management have been attempted at national level. However, management developments, transfer of better energy conservation technologies are still needed for further control of energy consumption and emissions. Fast-growing trees, ethanol and plant oils, still have potential for providing larger shares of the total energy supply. Thailand has sufficient surplus of cassava and molasses for gasohol with 15% ethanol content. Hydro-energy resources in Thailand and its neighbours are very much under-utilized and should be further harnessed preferably by small and run-off river hydro-power plants without large reservoirs. Nuclear power should still be kept as the last option.
Description: Proceedings of the second regional conference on energy technology towards a clean environment Vol.1 (12-14 February 2003) : p.1-12
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