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|Title: ||Towards clean transport : the case of Bangkok|
|Authors: ||Wibulswas, Prida|
|Keywords: ||Transportation and state|
|Issue Date: ||1994 |
|Series/Report no.: ||REP145 1994;c.1|
|Abstract: ||During the last decade, registrations of vehicles in Bangkok have more than doubled. This growth has resulted in rising emission of lead, suspended particulate matters,carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Though the air quality in Bangkok on the average can still be considered as normal for a large city, on the curb-sides, air pollution problems become rather serious.Suspended particulate matter is the most serious air pollutant in Bangkok. In 1992, the 24-hr average value in the air reached 0.97 mg/m3. To reduce the emission, diesel fuel has been reformulated by reducing the sulphur content from 1% to 0.5% and the boiling point at 90% endpoint from 370° C to 357° C.Lead used to be another serious air pollutant. In 1991, the highest 24-hr average value of lead in the air was 2.3 µg/m3, However, with the introduction of unleaded gasoline and reduction of lead in premium gasoline in 1992, the highest value of lead in the air was reduced to 1.5 µg/m3. It is expected that by 1996, the regular leaded gasoline will be removed from the Thai market.Ninety percent of about one million motorcycles in Bangkok have two-stroke engines. Two stroke motorcycles have been reported to emit about 50% of hydrocarbons from transport sources in Bangkok. Low-smoke lubricating oil now becomes mandatory in order to reduce the white smoke from the engines. Improved engines with low oil/fuel ratio have also been recently introduced into the country.Cars with gasoline engines have been identified as the major source of carbon monoxide emission. In 1992, the highest -hr average value of carbon monoxide was recorded at 28.2 mg/m3 of air. Since January 1993, catalytic converters have been mandated for all new cars but they appear to be inappropriate for a developing country like Thailand. Their effectiveness on carbon monoxide reduction in Bangkok is to be assessed.
One of the main sources of suspended particulate matter is the Bangkok Mass Transit buses. It has been suggested that the buses should switch from diesel oil to compressed natural gas. An experimental fleet of 82 natural-gas buses are being assessed for further expansion of the fleet.To reduce the traffic congestion and air pollution in Bangkok, three mass transit systems are being implemented. The Hopewell Elevated Rail System of 60 km long and Bangkok Transit System of 14.5 km long are privately funded. The Metropolitan Rapid Transit System of 20 km long will be financed by both the public and private sectors.
Heavy trucks and trailers also cause traffic congestion and SPM emission. They have been banned in one major street in Bangkok since February 1994. It is expected that they will be
banned in most major streets in the near future.|
|Description: ||Journal of the royal institute of Thailand. 3 (August 1994) : p. 102-111.|
|Appears in Collections:||Other Publications|
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